9/11 Conspiracy Theories & ‘Truthers’

Charlie Sheen and other ‘Truthers’ believe that 9/11 was an ‘inside’ job. That President Bush allowed this to happen and/or even assisted somehow. They are really just far-fetched conspiracy theories which only the most radical of folks on the edge of society put any credence in.

9/11 conspiracy theories claim that Al-Qaeda's September 11 attacks in 2001 were either intentionally allowed to happen or were a false flag operation orchestrated by elements within the United States government.[1] The most prominent claim is that the collapse of the World Trade Center and 7 World Trade Center were the result of a controlled demolition rather than structural weakening due to fire.[2][3] Another prominent claim is that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.S. government[4] or that a commercial airliner was allowed to do so via an effective stand down of the American military.[5][6][7] The common prescribed motives are the use of the attacks to justify the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, to facilitate increased military spending, and to restrict domestic civil liberties.

Published reports and articles by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Popular Mechanics and mainstream media have rejected the 9/11 conspiracy theories.[8][9] Civil engineers state that the impacts of jet aircraft at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires, rather than controlled demolition, led to the collapse of the Twin Towers and WTC 7.[10]

Following is the actual Statement signed by the so-called ‘Truther’s including the recently resigning Green CZAR Van Jones.

The Statement of 9/11 ‘Truthers’

We Want Real Answers About 9/11

On August 31, 2004, Zogby International, the official North American political polling agency for Reuters, released a poll that found nearly half (49.3%) of New York City residents and 41% of those in New York state believe US leaders had foreknowledge of impending 9/11 attacks and "consciously failed" to act. Of the New York City residents, 66% called for a new probe of unanswered questions by Congress or the New York Attorney General.

In connection with this news, we have assembled 100 notable Americans and 40 family members of those who died to sign this 9/11 Statement, which calls for immediate public attention to unanswered questions that suggest that people within the current administration may indeed have deliberately allowed 9/11 to happen, perhaps as a pretext for war.

We want truthful answers to questions such as:

1.        Why were standard operating procedures for dealing with hijacked airliners not followed that day?

2.        Why were the extensive missile batteries and air defenses reportedly deployed around the Pentagon not activated during the attack?

3.        Why did the Secret Service allow Bush to complete his elementary school visit, apparently unconcerned about his safety or that of the schoolchildren?

4.        Why hasn't a single person been fired, penalized, or reprimanded for the gross incompetence we witnessed that day?

5.        Why haven't authorities in the U.S. and abroad published the results of multiple investigations into trading that strongly suggested foreknowledge of specific details of the 9/11 attacks, resulting in tens of millions of dollars of traceable gains?

6.        Why has Sibel Edmonds, a former FBI translator who claims to have knowledge of advance warnings, been publicly silenced with a gag order requested by Attorney General Ashcroft and granted by a Bush-appointed judge?

7.        How could Flight 77, which reportedly hit the Pentagon, have flown back towards Washington D.C. for 40 minutes without being detected by the FAA's radar or the even superior radar possessed by the US military?

8.        How were the FBI and CIA able to release the names and photos of the alleged hijackers within hours, as well as to visit houses, restaurants, and flight schools they were known to frequent?

9.        What happened to the over 20 documented warnings given our government by 14 foreign intelligence agencies or heads of state?

10.     Why did the Bush administration cover up the fact that the head of the Pakistani intelligence agency was in Washington the week of 9/11 and reportedly had $100,000 wired to Mohamed Atta, considered the ringleader of the hijackers?

11.     Why did the 911 Commission fail to address most of the questions posed by the families of the victims, in addition to almost all of the questions posed here?

12.     Why was Philip Zelikow chosen to be the Executive Director of the ostensibly independent 911 Commission although he had co-authored a book with Condoleezza Rice?

Those who are demanding deeper inquiry now number in the hundreds of thousands, including a former member of the first Bush administration, a retired Air Force colonel, a European parliamentarian, families of the victims, highly respected authors, investigative journalists, peace and justice leaders, former Pentagon staff, and the National Green Party.

As Americans of conscience, we ask for four things:

1.        An immediate investigation by New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer

2.        Immediate investigation in Congressional Hearings.

3.        Media attention to scrutinize and investigate the evidence.

4.        The formation of a truly independent citizens-based inquiry.

Given the importance of the coming election, we feel it is imperative that these questions be addressed publicly, honestly, and rigorously so that Americans may exercise their democratic rights with full awareness.

In closing, we pray and hope for the strength to approach this subject with wisdom and compassion so that we may heal from the wounds inflicted on that terrible day.

History

Since the September 11 attacks, a variety of conspiracy theories regarding the 9/11 attacks have been put forward in Web sites, books, and films. Many groups and individuals advocating 9/11 conspiracy theories identify as part of the 9/11 Truth Movement.[11][12][13] Unlike conspiracy theories about the death of Princess Diana, 9/11 conspiracy theories did not emerge immediately after the event. Indeed, most professional conspiracy theorists in the United States appeared to be as shocked as the rest of the population.[14] The first theories that emerged focused primarily on various anomalies in the publicly available evidence, and proponents later developed more specific theories about an alleged plot.[14]

The first elaborated theories appeared in Europe. They include a blog published by Mathias Bröckers, an editor at the German newspaper Die Tageszeitung at the time, the book 9/11: The Big Lie by French journalist Thierry Meyssan, the book The CIA and September 11 by former German state minister Andreas von Bülow and the book Operation 9/11, written by the German journalist Gerhard Wisnewski.[14]

While these theories were popular in Europe, they were treated by the U.S. media with either bafflement or amusement and were dismissed by the U.S. government as the product of anti-Americanism.[15][16] In an address to the United Nations on November 10, 2001, United States President George W. Bush denounced the emergence of "outrageous conspiracy theories [...] that attempt to shift the blame away from the terrorists, themselves, away from the guilty."[17]

By 2004, conspiracy theories about the September 11 attacks began to gain ground in the United States. One explanation for the increase in popularity was that it was not the discovery of any new or more compelling evidence or an improvement of the technical quality of the presentation of the theories, but rather the growing criticism of the Iraq War and the presidency of George W. Bush, who had been reelected in 2004.[14] Revelations of spin doctoring and lying by federal officials, such as the claims about the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, the belated release of the President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001 and reports that NORAD had lied to the 9/11 Commission, may have fuelled the conspiracy theories.[14]

Between 2004 and the fifth anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2006, mainstream coverage of the conspiracy theories increased.[14] Reacting to the growing publicity, the U.S. government issued responses to the theories, including a formal analysis by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) about the collapse of the World Trade Center,[18] a revised 2006 State Department webpage to debunk the theories,[19] and a strategy paper referred to by President Bush in an August 2006 speech, which declared that terrorism springs from "subcultures of conspiracy and misinformation," and that "terrorists recruit more effectively from populations whose information about the world is contaminated by falsehoods and corrupted by conspiracy theories. The distortions keep alive grievances and filter out facts that would challenge popular prejudices and self-serving propaganda."[20] Al-Qaeda has repeatedly claimed responsibility for the attacks, with chief deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri accusing Shia Iran and Hezbollah of intentionally starting rumors that Israel carried out the attacks to denigrate Sunni successes in hurting America.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

Some of the conspiracy theories about the September 11 attacks do not involve representational strategies typical of many conspiracy theories that establish a clear dichotomy between good and evil, or guilty and innocent. Instead, they call up gradations of negligence and complicity.[14] Matthias Bröckers, an early proponent of such theories, dismisses the official account of the September 11 attacks as being itself a conspiracy theory that seeks "to reduce complexity, disentangle what is confusing," and "explain the inexplicable".[14]

Just prior to the fifth anniversary of the attacks, mainstream news outlets released a flurry of articles on the growth of 9/11 conspiracy theories,[27] with an article in the magazine Time stating that "This is not a fringe phenomenon. It is a mainstream political reality."[28] An August 2007 Zogby poll commissioned by 911Truth.org[29] found that 63.6% of Americans believe that Arab fundamentalists were responsible for 9/11 while 26.4% of believed that "certain elements in the U.S. government knew the attacks were coming but consciously let them proceed for various political, military and economic reasons" and 4.8% of them believe that "certain U.S. Government elements actively planned or assisted some aspects of the attacks".[30] (See 9/11 opinion polls.) In 2008, 9/11 conspiracy theories topped a "greatest conspiracy theory” list compiled by The Daily Telegraph. The list was based on following and traction.[31][32] Mainstream coverage generally presents these theories as a cultural phenomenon and is often critical of their content.

Mainstream account

Main article: September 11 attacks

On September 11, 2001, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying at least two nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon and a fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after the passengers and flight crew revolted.[33]

Within the context of 9/11 conspiracy theories, the terms 'mainstream account,' 'official account' and 'official conspiracy theory' all refer to:

The 9/11 Commission Report disclosed prior warnings of varying detail of planned attacks against the United States by al-Qaeda. The report said that the government ignored these warnings due to a lack of communication between various law enforcement and intelligence personnel. For the lack of inter-agency communication, the report cited bureaucratic inertia and laws passed in the 1970s to prevent abuses that caused scandals during that era. The report faulted the Clinton and the Bush administrations with “failure of imagination”. Most members of the Democratic and the Republican parties applauded the commission's work.[46]

Some members of the 9/11 Commission have criticized how the government formed and operated the commission, and allege omissions and distortions in the 9/11 Commission Report.[47][48][49] Commission co-chairs Thomas Kean and Lee Hamilton wrote in their book Without Precedent that the 9/11 Commission was "set up to fail," and in an interview with CBC News, Mr. Hamilton complained of "poor access" and said that the Commission was unable to answer many of its questions about Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and NORAD and White House activity.[50] He also acknowledged that NORAD had told the Commission things that were not true.[50] According to an article in Harpers magazine, the Commissioners wrote that they threatened to seek prosecution of officials for criminal obstruction. [51]

Variants

Most 9/11 conspiracy theories generally originate from dissatisfaction with the mainstream account of 9/11.[52] Less extensive theories allege that official reports have covered up incompetence or negligence from U.S. personnel, or involvement of a foreign government or organization other than al-Qaeda.[53] The most prevalent theories can be broadly divided into two main forms:

  • LIHOP ("let it happen on purpose") - suggests that key individuals within the government had at least some foreknowledge of the attacks and deliberately ignored them or actively weakened America's defenses to ensure the hijacked flights were not intercepted.[52][54]
  • MIHOP ("made it happen on purpose") - that key individuals within the government planned the attacks and collaborated with or framed, al-Qaeda in carrying them out. There is a range of opinions about how this might have been achieved.[52][54]

Main theories

Foreknowledge

Main article: 9/11 advance-knowledge debate

See also: U.S. military response during the September 11 attacks

It has been claimed that action or inaction by U.S. officials with foreknowledge was intended to ensure that the attacks took place successfully. For example, Michael Meacher, former British environment minister and member of Tony Blair's Cabinet until June 2003 claims that the United States knowingly failed to prevent the attacks.[55][56] David Ray Griffin alleges that the 9/11 conspiracy was considerably larger than the government claims and that the entire 9/11 Commission Report "is constructed in support of one big lie: that the official story about 9/11 is true."[57]

One popular conspiracy theory suggests there was a suspiciously high volume of put options placed on United Airlines and American Airlines stocks just before 9/11. According to this theory, trading insiders knew in advance of the coming events of 9/11 and placed their bets accordingly. While this may look suspicious in isolation, the general volume of put trading on these stocks reached similar levels at earlier points in the year.[58] In fact, American Airlines had just released a major warning about possible losses.[59]

Another common claim is that the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) issued a stand down order or deliberately scrambled fighters late to allow the hijacked airplanes to reach their targets without interference. According to this theory, NORAD had the capability of locating and intercepting planes on 9/11, and its failure to do so indicates a government conspiracy to allow the attacks to occur.[59] The Web site emperors-clothes.com argues that the U.S. military failed to do their job. StandDown.net's Mark R. Elsis says "There is only one explanation for this.... Our Air Force was ordered to Stand Down on 9/11."[60][61]

Phil Molé of Skeptic magazine has responded that it is neither quick nor easy to locate and intercept a plane behaving erratically, and that the hijackers turned off or disabled the onboard radar transponders. Without these transponder signals to identify the airplanes, the hijacked airplanes would have been only blips among 4,500 other blips on NORAD’S radar screens, making them very difficult to track.[59][60]

According to Popular Mechanics, in fact, only 14 fighter jets were on alert in the contiguous 48 states on 9/11. There was no automated method for the civilian air traffic controllers to alert NORAD. "They had to pick up the phone and literally dial us," says Maj. Douglas Martin, public affairs officer for NORAD. According to Popular Mechanics,[60]

In the decade before 9/11, NORAD intercepted only one civilian plane over North America: golfer Payne Stewart's Learjet, in October 1999. With passengers and crew unconscious from cabin decompression, the plane lost radio contact but remained in transponder contact until it crashed. Even so, it took an F-16 1 hour and 22 minutes to reach the stricken jet. Rules in effect back then, and on 9/11, prohibited supersonic flight on intercepts. Prior to 9/11, all other NORAD interceptions were limited to offshore Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ). "Until 9/11 there was no domestic ADIZ," FAA spokesman Bill Schumann tells PM. After 9/11, NORAD and the FAA increased cooperation, setting up hotlines between ATCs and NORAD command centers, according to officials from both agencies. NORAD has also increased its fighter coverage and has installed radar to monitor airspace over the continent.

World Trade Center collapse

Main article: World Trade Center controlled demolition conspiracy theories


Criticism of the reports published by NIST on the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings plays a central role in theories about an alleged controlled demolition. The picture shows the simulated exterior buckling of 7 WTC during the collapse.

The controlled demolition conspiracy theories state that the collapse of the North Tower, South Tower and 7 World Trade Center was caused by the use of explosives or incendiaries.[62] Steven E. Jones, a retired professor of Brigham Young University, suggests that the working hypothesis, as outlined in NIST's 2004 interim report, that fire and debris induced the collapse of 7 WTC, is false.[63]

Proponents, such as Steven E. Jones, Richard Gage and Jim Hoffman argue that the aircraft impacts and resulting fires could not have weakened the buildings sufficiently to initiate a catastrophic collapse, and that the buildings would not have collapsed completely, symmetrically, nor at the speeds that they did, without additional energy involved to weaken their structures. Jones has presented the hypothesis that thermite or nanothermite was used to demolish the buildings. In April 2009, Danish chemist Niels H. Harrit, of the University of Copenhagen, and eight other authors, published a paper that claims nano-sized "chips" consisting of unreacted and partially reacted super-thermite are present in the samples of the dust.[64]

The Federal Emergency Management Agency report of 2002 and the later National Institute of Standards and Technology report of 2005 regarding the reconstruction of the collapse events of the Twin Towers and 7 World Trade Center both contradict the controlled demolition conspiracy theories. On August 21, 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology released a 77-page report on the cause of the collapse of 7 WTC. It concluded that the collapse occurred because the building was set on fire by falling debris from the other burning towers, that catastrophic failure occurred when the 13th floor collapsed weakening a critical steel support column and that the collapse of the nearby towers broke the city water main, leaving the sprinkler system in the bottom half of the building without water. The theories that the collapse was caused by explosions or fires caused by diesel fuel in the building was investigated and ruled out.[65]

The Pentagon

Debris scattered near the Pentagon.

Thierry Meyssan and Reopen911.org argue that American Airlines Flight 77 did not crash into the Pentagon but instead was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.S. government. Reopen911.org argues that the holes in the Pentagon walls were far too small to have been made by a Boeing 757: "How does a plane 125 ft. wide and 155 ft. long fit into a hole which is only 60 ft. across?" Meyssan’s book, L’Effroyable Imposture (published in English as 9/11: The Big Lie) became an instant bestseller in France and is available in more than a dozen languages. When released, the book was heavily criticized by the French press. The French newspaper Liberation called the book "a tissue of wild and irresponsible allegations, entirely without foundation."[67][68]

According to Mete Sozen, a professor of structural engineering at Purdue University, a crashing jet doesn't punch a cartoon-like outline of itself into a reinforced concrete building. When Flight 77 hit the Pentagon, one wing hit the ground and the other was sheared off by the Pentagon's load-bearing columns.[67]

Airplane debris including Flight 77's black boxes, the nose cone, landing gear, an airplane tire, the fuselage, an intact cockpit seat, and the tail number of the airplane were recovered at the crash site. The remains of passengers and crew from Flight 77 were found at the Pentagon crash site and their identities confirmed by DNA analysis. Numerous eyewitnesses saw the plane strike the Pentagon. Witness Salvadorean Omar Campo said, "It was a passenger plane. I think an American Airways plane. I was cutting grass and it came in screaming over my head. Another witness named Joseph Candelario said "I noticed a large aircraft flying low towards the White House. This aircraft then made a sharp turn and flew towards the Pentagon and seconds later crashed into it." Further, Flight 77 passengers made phone calls reporting that their airplane had been hijacked. For example, passenger Renee May called her mother to tell her that the plane had been hijacked and that the passengers had been herded to the back of the plane. Another passenger named Barbara Olson called her husband (US Solicitor General Theodore Olson) and said that the flight had been hijacked, and that the hijackers had knives and box cutters.[4][67][69]

Flight 193

The fourth plane hijacked on 9/11, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed in an open field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after the passengers revolted. Out of the four planes hijacked on that day, it was the only one not to reach its target.[70]

One of the popular conspiracy theories surrounding this event is that Flight 93 was actually shot down by a U.S. fighter jet. David Ray Griffin and Alex Jones say that large parts of the plane including the main body of the engine landed miles away from the main wreckage site, too far away for an ordinary plane crash. Jones says that planes usually leave a small debris field when they crash, and that this is not compatible with reports of wreckage found farther away from the main crash site. A posting on Rense.com claimed that the main body of the engine "was found miles away from the main wreckage site with damage comparable to that which a heat-seeking missile would do to an airliner." [67][70][71]

According to some theories, the plane had to be shot down by the government because passengers had found out about the "plot".[72]

According to the magazine Skeptic, "[this] claim rests largely on unsupported assertions that the main body of the engine and other large parts of the plane turned up miles from the main wreckage site, too far away to have resulted from an ordinary crash. This is incorrect, because the engine was found only 300 yards from the main crash site, and its location was consistent with the direction in which the plane had been traveling." Michael K. Hynes, an airline accident expert who investigated the crash of TWA Flight 800 in 1996 says that "It's not unusual for an engine to move or tumble across the ground.... When you have very high velocities, 500 mph or more, you are talking about 700 to 800 ft. per second. For something to hit the ground with that kind of energy, it would only take a few seconds to bounce up and travel 300 yards."[67][73]

Reports of wreckage discovered at Indian Lake by local residents are accurate. CNN reported that investigators found debris from the crash at least eight miles away from the crash site, including in New Baltimore.[74] However, according to CNN, this debris was all very light material that the wind would have easily blown away, and a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article from September 14, 2001 describes the material as "mostly papers", "strands of charred insulation", and an "endorsed paycheck". The same article quotes FBI agent Bill Crowley that, "Lighter, smaller debris probably shot into the air on the heat of a fireball that witnesses said shot several hundred feet into the air after the jetliner crashed. Then, it probably rode a wind that was blowing southeast at about 9 m.p.h."[75] Also, the distance between the crash site and Indian Lake was misreported in some accounts. According to the BBC, "In a straight line, Indian Lake is just over a mile from the crash site. The road between the two locations takes a roundabout route of 6.9 miles — accounting for the erroneous reports."[70]

Some conspiracy theorists believe a small white jet seen flying over the crash area may have fired a missile to shoot down Flight 93.[76][dubiousdiscuss] However, government agencies such as the FBI assert this was a Dassault Falcon business jet asked to descend to an altitude of around 1500 ft to survey the impact.[77] Ben Sliney, who was the FAA operation manager on September 11, 2001, says no military aircraft were near Flight 93.[78]

Some internet videos, such as Loose Change, speculate that Flight 93 safely landed in Ohio, and a substituted plane was involved in the crash in Pennsylvania.[79] Often cited is a preliminary news report that Flight 93 landed at a Cleveland airport;[80] it was later learned that Delta Flight 1989 was the plane confused with Flight 93, and the report was retracted as inaccurate. Several websites within the 9/11 Truth Movement dispute this claim, citing the wreckage at the scene, eyewitness testimony, and the difficulty of secretly substituting one plane for another, and claim that such "hoax theories... appear calculated to alienate victims' survivors and the larger public from the 9/11 truth movement".[71][81] The editor of the article has since written a rebuttal to the claims.[82]

The woman who took the only photograph of the mushroom cloud from the impact of Flight 93 hitting the ground says she has been harassed by conspiracy theorists, who claim she faked the photo. The FBI, the Smithsonian, and the National Park Service’s Flight 93 National Memorial have found it to be authentic.[83]

Conspiracy theorists have claimed that passengers of Flight 93 or Flight 77, or of both flights, were murdered or that they were relocated, with the intent that they never be found.[72]

Remote control

Some theories suggest that, rather than having preset routes entered into the planes' on-board computers, the planes were flown by remote control. Theories of remotely controlled aircraft have been criticised for ignoring phone calls made by passengers which state that their aircraft had been hijacked.[4]

According to Boeing spokesperson Elizabeth Verdiev, Boeing designed its commercial airplanes so that it is impossible for them to be controlled remotely:[84]

No Boeing commercial jet transport can be controlled from outside the airplane. No Boeing commercial jet transport can be commanded or have its flight controlled other than from within the flight deck by the pilots. Pilots can program the airplane to take off, fly to a destination and land automatically, but Boeing design philosophy keeps pilots in control and in the decision-making loop at all times.

Hijackers

See also: Hijackers in the September 11 attacks and 9/11 advance-knowledge debate#Blocked al-Qaeda investigations

During the initial confusion surrounding the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the BBC published the names and identities of some of the hijackers. Although this story was superseded by subsequent reporting,[85] the original story has been cited as evidence that the 9/11 attacks were part of a US government conspiracy. The BBC explained that this confusion may have arisen because the names they reported back in 2001 were common Arabic and Islamic names. In response to a request from the BBC, the FBI stated:[86]

The FBI is confident that it has positively identified the nineteen hijackers responsible for the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Also, the 9/11 investigation was thoroughly reviewed by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States and the House and Senate Joint Inquiry. Neither of these reviews ever raised the issue of doubt about the identity of the nineteen hijackers.

The New York Times also acknowledged these as cases of mistaken identity.[87]

According to Managing Editor John Bradley of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the only public information about the hijackers was a list of names issued by the FBI on September 14, 2001. When the FBI released photographs four days after the cited reports on September 27, the mistaken identities were quickly resolved. According to Bradley, "all of this is attributable to the chaos that prevailed during the first few days following the attack. What we're dealing with are coincidentally identical names." In Saudi Arabia, says Bradley, the names of two of the allegedly surviving attackers, Said al-Ghamdi and Walid al-Shari, are "as common as John Smith in the United States or Great Britain."[88]

Phone calls

Air phone calls and cell phone calls were placed from the hijacked planes. Conspiracy theorist A. K. Dewdney claims that cell phone calls should either be impossible or rarely possible from commercial planes, and therefore the hijackings were staged and the phone calls were faked.[89]

After 9/11, cellular experts said that they were surprised calls were able to be placed from the hijacked planes, and that they lasted as long as they did. They said that the only reason that the calls went through in the first place is that the aircraft were flying so close to the ground.[90] Alexa Graf, an AT&T spokesperson said it was almost a fluke that the calls reached their destinations.[91] Other industry experts said that it is possible to use cell phones with varying degrees of success during the ascent and descent of commercial airline flights.[92] Marvin Sirbu, professor of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University said on September 14, 2001, that "The fact of the matter is that cell phones can work in almost all phases of a commercial flight."[92]

According to the 9/11 Commission Report, 13 passengers from Flight 93 made a total of over 30 calls to both family and emergency personnel (twenty-two confirmed air phone calls, two confirmed cell phone and eight not specified in the report). According to Debunk911myths.org, all but two calls from Flight 93 were made on air phones, not cell phones, and both calls lasted about a minute before being dropped.[93] Brenda Raney, Verizon Wireless spokesperson, said that Flight 93 was supported by several cell sites.[91] There were reportedly three phone calls from Flight 11, five from Flight 175, and three calls from Flight 77. Two calls from these flights were recorded, placed by flight attendants Madeleine Sweeney and Betty Ong on Flight 11. A conspiracy theory web site claims anomalies relating to the nature of the phone call transcripts.[94]

Jewish and Israeli involvement

See also: 9/11 advance-knowledge debate#Israel

There are theories that 9/11 was part of an international Jewish conspiracy. One the more popular claims in these theories[dubiousdiscuss] is that 4,000 Jewish employees skipped work at the World Trade Center on September 11. This was first reported on September 17 by the Lebanese Hezbollah-owned satellite television channel Al-Manar and is believed to be based on the September 12 edition of the Jerusalem Post that stated "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attacks."[95] Both turned out to be incorrect; the number of Jews who died in the attacks is variously estimated at between 270 to 400.[96][97][98][99] The lower figure tracks closely with the percentage of Jews living in the New York area and partial surveys of the victims' listed religion. The U.S. State Department has published a partial list of 76 in response to claims that fewer Jews/Israelis died in the WTC attacks than should have been present at the time.[100][101] Five Israeli citizens died in the attack.[102]

It has been claimed that Israeli agents may have had foreknowledge of the attacks. Four hours after the attack, the FBI arrested five Israelis who had been filming the smoking skyline from the roof of a white van in the parking lot of an apartment building, for "puzzling behavior". The Israelis were said to have been videotaping the disaster with cries of "joy and mockery".[103]

Other theories

Cover-up allegations

Conspiracy theorists say they detect a pattern of behavior on the part of officials investigating the September 11 attack meant to suppress the emergence of evidence that might contradict the mainstream account.[104][105][106] They associated news stories from several different sources with that pattern.[107][108][109][110][111][112]

Cockpit recorders

According to the 9/11 Commission Report, the cockpit voice recorders (CVR) or flight data recorders (FDR), or "black boxes", from Flights 11 and 175 were not recovered from the remains of the WTC attack; however, two men, Michael Bellone and Nicholas DeMasi, who worked extensively in the wreckage of the World Trade Center, stated in the book Behind-The-Scenes: Ground Zero[113] that they helped federal agents find three of the four "black boxes" from the jetliners:[114][115][dead link]

"At one point I was assigned to take Federal Agents around the site to search for the black boxes from the planes. We were getting ready to go out. My ATV was parked at the top of the stairs at the Brooks Brothers entrance area. We loaded up about a million dollars worth of equipment and strapped it into the ATV. There were a total of four black boxes. We found three."[116]

 Thursday, September 10, 2009The cockpit voice recorder from Flight 77 was heavily damaged from the impact and resulting fire.

Ted Lopatkiewicz, spokesman for the National Transportation Safety Board, remarked that "It's extremely rare that we don't get the recorders back. I can't recall another domestic case in which we did not recover the recorders."[117]

According to the 9/11 Commission Report, both black boxes from Flight 77 and both black boxes from Flight 93 were recovered. However, the CVR from Flight 77 was said to be too damaged to yield any data. On April 18, 2002, the FBI allowed the families of victims from Flight 93 to listen to the voice recordings.[118] In April 2006, a transcript of the CVR was released as part of the Zacarias Moussaoui trial. Some conspiracy theorists[who?] do not believe that the black boxes were damaged and that instead there has been a cover up of evidence.

Bin Laden tapes

Main article: Videos of Osama bin Laden

A series of interviews, audio and videotapes have been released since the 9/11 attacks that have been reported to be from Osama bin Laden. At first the speaker denied responsibility for the attacks but over the years has taken increasing responsibility for them culminating in a November 2007 videotape in which the speaker claimed sole responsibility for the attacks and denied the Taliban and the Afghan government or people had any prior knowledge of the attacks.[119][120][121] The Central Intelligence Agency has confirmed the speaker was or was likely to be Osama bin Laden. Some people in the Muslim world doubted the authenticity of the tape.[122] Steve and Paul Watson of Infowars.net claim that the organization handling the tapes is a front for the Pentagon and that the tapes are "highly suspect".[121][123]

Foreign governments

See also: Responsibility for the September 11 attacks#Other alleged responsibility and 9/11 advanced-knowledge debate#Foreign government foreknowledge

There are allegations that individuals within the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) may have played an important role in financing the attacks. There are also claims that other foreign intelligence agencies, such as the Israeli Mossad, had foreknowledge of the attacks, and that Saudi Arabia may have played a role in financing the attacks. Francesco Cossiga, former President of Italy from 1985 until his resignation over Operation Gladio, asserts that it is common knowledge among democratic circles in the U.S. and Europe, and primarily in the Italian center-left, that the 9/11 attacks were a joint operation of the CIA and the Mossad.[124] General Hamid Gul, a former head of ISI, believes the attacks were an “inside job” originating in the United States, perpetrated by Israel or neo-conservatives.[125]

The theory that such foreign individuals outside of al-Qaeda were involved is often part of larger “inside job” theories, although it has been claimed that, while al-Qaeda deserves most of the responsibility, the alleged role played by Pakistan, Israel or Saudi Arabia was deliberately overlooked by the official investigation for political reasons.[citation needed]

"No plane" theories

The "no plane theory," promoted by internet-only videos like 911 Taboo,[126] asserts that this shot of the second impact, taken from a news helicopter, depicts a video composite of a Boeing 767 accidentally appearing from behind a Layer Mask.

Nico Haupt and Morgan Reynolds, formerly the chief economist within the Labor Department under the Bush administration argue that no planes were used in the attacks. Reynolds claims it is physically impossible that the Boeing planes of Flights 11 and 175, being largely aluminium, could have penetrated the steel frames of the Towers, and that digital compositing was used to depict the plane crashes in both news reports and subsequent amateur video.[127] "There were no planes, there were no hijackers," Reynolds insists. "I know, I know, I'm out of the mainstream, but that's the way it is." According to David Shayler, "The only explanation is that they were missiles surrounded by holograms made to look like planes," he says. "Watch footage frame by frame and you will see a cigar-shaped missile hitting the World Trade Center." Truth movement veterans tend to distance themselves from "no-planers".[61][127] Discussion of no plane theories have been banned from certain conspiracy theory websites while advocates have been threatened with violence by posters at other conspiracy theory websites.[128]

Reptilian shape-shifting aliens

See also: David Icke

David Icke argues that reptilian, shape-shifting extraterrestrial humanoids are responsible for the 9/11 attacks. According to Icke, a reptilian global elite is behind all things that occur in the world. According to Phoenix New Times, "Icke is part of a virulent strain of anti-Semitism that runs throughout the 9/11 conspiracy crowd." Icke's theories are rejected by 911blogger.com and other conspiracy theory sites.[128][129][130]

Pax Americana

Main article: Pax Americana

In suggesting motives for the U.S. government to have carried out the attacks, Professor David Ray Griffin claims that a global "Pax Americana" was a dream held by many members of the Bush Administration.[citation needed] This dream was first articulated in the Defense Planning Guidance of 1992, drafted by Paul Wolfowitz on behalf of then Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, in a document that has been called "a blueprint for permanent American global hegemony."[131]

Matt Taibbi, in his book The Great Derangement argues that this is "taken completely out of context", and that the "transformation" referenced in the paper is explicitly stated to be a decades-long process to turn the Cold War-era military into a "new, modern military" which could deal with more localized conflicts.[132] He further ridicules this position by pointing out that, for this to be evidence of motive, that either those responsible decided to openly state their objectives, or read the paper in 2000 and quickly laid the groundwork for the 9/11 attacks using it as inspiration.[132] In either case, he argues that this is a form of "defiant unfamiliarity with the actual character of America's ruling class" and constitutes part of a "completely and utterly retarded" narrative to explain the attacks.[132]

Invasions

There are claims that the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan was being planned before 9/11. The military intelligence journal Jane's Intelligence Weekly reported on March 15, 2001, that India was believed to have joined Russia, the USA and Iran in a concerted front against Afghanistan's Taliban regime, and that the efforts of the four countries facilitated the capture of a strategic town in Afghanistan by the Northern Alliance.[133] The BBC reported on September 18, 2001 that Niaz Naik, a former Pakistani Foreign Secretary, was told by senior American officials in mid-July that military action against Afghanistan would go ahead by the middle of October.[134] MSNBC reported on May 16, 2002 that unspecified "U.S. and foreign sources" said President George W. Bush received plans on September 9, 2001 to begin a worldwide war on al-Qaeda but did not have the chance to sign it before the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington.[135]

Conspiracy theorists[who?] have questioned whether the Oil Factor and 9/11 provided the United States and the United Kingdom with a reason to launch a war they had wanted for some time, and suggest that this gives them a strong motive for either carrying out the attacks, or allowing them to take place. For instance, Andreas von Bülow, a former research minister in the German government, has argued that 9/11 was staged to justify the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.[136]

Suggested historical precedents

Time magazine contrasts events which inspired past conspiracy theories with those that inspire 9/11 conspiracy theories such as the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Whereas the assassination of Kennedy was a private, intimate affair, the attack on the World Trade Center was witnessed by millions of people and documented by hundreds of videographers. Time magazine explains that "there is no event so plain and clear that a determined human being can't find ambiguity in it."[28]

Media reaction

While discussion and coverage of these theories is mainly confined to internet pages, books, documentary films, and conversation, a number of mainstream news outlets around the world have covered the issue.

The Norwegian version of the July 2006 Le Monde diplomatique sparked interest when they ran, on their own initiative, a three page main story on the 9/11 attacks and summarized the various types of 9/11 conspiracy theories (which were not specifically endorsed by the newspaper, only recensed).[137] The Voltaire Network, which has changed position since the September 11 attacks and whose director, Thierry Meyssan, became a leading proponent of 9/11 conspiracy theory, explained that although the Norwegian version of Le Monde diplomatique had allowed it to translate and publish this article on its website, the mother-house, in France, categorically refused it this right, thus displaying an open debate between various national editions.[138] In December 2006, the French version published an article by Alexander Cockburn, co-editor of CounterPunch, which strongly criticized the endorsement of conspiracy theories by the U.S. left-wing, alleging that it was a sign of "theoretical emptiness."[139][140]

Also, on the Canadian website for CBC News: The Fifth Estate, a program titled, "Conspiracy Theories: uncovering the facts behind the myths of Sept. 11, 2001" was broadcast on October 29, 2003, stating that what they found may be more surprising than any theories.[141]

An article in the September 11, 2006 edition of Time magazine comments that the major 9/11 conspiracy theories “depend on circumstantial evidence, facts without analysis or documentation, quotes taken out of context and the scattered testimony of traumatized eyewitnesses”, and enjoy continued popularity because “the idea that there is a malevolent controlling force orchestrating global events is, in a perverse way, comforting”. It concludes that “conspiracy theories are part of the process by which Americans deal with traumatic public events” and constitute “an American form of national mourning.”[142]

The Daily Telegraph published an article titled "The CIA couldn't have organised this..." which said "The same people who are making a mess of Iraq were never so clever or devious that they could stage a complex assault on two narrow towers of steel and glass" and "if there is a nefarious plot in all this bad planning, it is one improvised by a confederacy of dunces". This article mainly attacked a group of scientists led by Professor Steven E. Jones, now called Scholars for 9/11 Truth and Justice. They said "most of them aren't scientists but instructors... at second-rate colleges".[143]

A major Australian newspaper The Daily Telegraph, published an article in May 2007 that was highly critical of Loose Change 2, a movie which presents a 9/11 conspiracy theory.[144]

Doug MacEachern in a May 2008 column for the Arizona Republic wrote that while many "9/11 truthers" are not crackpots that espouse "crackpot conspiracy theories". He wrote that supporters of the theories fail to take into account both human nature and that nobody has come forward claiming they were participants in the alleged conspiracies.[145] This view seconded by Timothy Giannuzzi, a Calgary Herald op-ed columnist specializing in foreign policy.[146]

On June 7, 2008, The Financial Times Magazine published a lengthy article on the 9/11 Truth Movement and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[147][148][149]

Charlie Brooker a British multimedia personality in a July 2008 column published by The Guardian as part of its "Comment is free" series agreed that 9/11 conspiracy theorists fail to take in account human fallacies and added that believing in these theories gives theorists a sense of belonging to a community that shares privileged information thus giving the theorists a delusional sense of power.[150] The commentary generated over 1700 online responses the largest in the history of the series.[151]

On September 12, 2008, Russian State Television broadcast in prime time a documentary made by Member of the European Parliament Giulietto Chiesa entitled Zero sympathetic to those who question the mainstream account of the attacks according to Chiesa. According to Thierry Meyssan in conjunction with the documentary, Russian State Television aired a debate on the subject. The panel consisted of members from several countries including 12 Russians who hold divergent views. The motive of Russian State Television in broadcasting the documentary was questioned by a commentator from The Other Russia who noted that Russian State Television had a history of broadcasting programs involving conspiracy theories involving the United States government. [152][153][154]

Nasir Mahmood in a commentary printed by the Pakistan Observer wrote favorably about a 9/11 truth lecture and film festival held in California and quoted a Jewish speaker at that festival who said that none of the 19 suspected hijackers had been proven guilty of anything and compared racism against Muslims resulting from what he called false accusations to the racism against Jews in the Nazi era.[155]

On November 10, 2008, ITN broadcast a story summarizing various 9/11 conspiracy theories.[156]

The emergence of the birther movement in 2009 has led to comparisons between that movement and the 9/11 Truth Movement, with both movements seen in a very negative light. Moon Landing conspiracy theories have also been compared to the birther and 9/11 conspiracy theories. James Borne, a journalist for The Times who covered the September 11 Attacks, described his assignment covering a 9/11 truth meeting "Perhaps the most intellectually scary assignment I have had in recent years".[157][158][159][160]

On August 31, 2009 The National Geographic Channel aired a program 9/11 Science and Conspiracy. The channel used The Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center to test four popular 9/11 conspiracy theories. Specifically the experiments concluded that jet fuel would quickly knock out fireproofing material and produce temperatures high enough to burn down a building quickly, that a controlled demolition would leave clear traces of evidence that were not found at ground zero, that thermite is not a material that would have been capable knocking down the towers and that even if thermite is found it would be impossible to tell if it came from the airplanes melting or a controlled demolition. The testing concluded that the type of hole found at The Pentagon was plausible with the mainstream scenario and that damage from a bombing or a missile attack of the Pentagon would differ from the actual damage that occurred on 9/11. Several prominent 9/11 conspiracy theorists and debunker's commented and disagreed on the results. The program concluded that the divisions over 9/11 conspiracy theories show that the 9/11 attacks have left a wound that can nor should be healed.[161][162]

In popular culture

In June 2005 the popular murder mystery German State Television program Tatort ran an episode in which a woman who claims the 9/11 attacks were instigated by the Bush family for oil and power is targeted by FBI and CIA hitmen after her male roommate is found dead. The roommate was trained to be a 9/11 pilot but was left behind. The episode viewed by 7 million people ended when the detectives investigating the death believed her and she escapes to an unnamed Arab country.[163] In season 10 of the animated show South Park, the episode Mystery of the Urinal Deuce centers around 9/11 conspiracy theories. After Eric Cartman, a main character in the show, blames Kyle Broflovski of causing 9/11, Kyle and his friend Stan Marsh end up in the White house, where they are told that the government did in fact cause the 9/11 attacks. They escape, and eventually it is revealed that the government wants people to think that they caused 9/11, so that they think the government has more power than it does. [164] A Rescue Me episode featured a character played by actor Daniel Sunjata who is a 9/11 conspiracy theorist in real life, explaining to a French journalist that the 9/11 attacks were a “neoconservative government effort” to create a new Pearl Harbor to control oil and increase military spending.[165][166] According to Dennis Leary major plot lines in the first 10 episodes of the shows season 5 revolve around reinvestigation and conspiracy theories surrounding the 9/11 attacks.[167]

Criticism

Critics of these conspiracy theories say they are a form of conspiracism common throughout history after a traumatic event in which conspiracy theories emerge as a mythic form of explanation.[168] A related criticism addresses the form of research on which the theories are based. Thomas W. Eagar, an engineering professor at MIT, suggested they "use the 'reverse scientific method'. They determine what happened, throw out all the data that doesn't fit their conclusion, and then hail their findings as the only possible conclusion." Eagar's criticisms also exemplify a common stance that the theories are best ignored. "I've told people that if the argument gets too mainstream, I'll engage in the debate." This, he continues, happened when Steve Jones took up the issue.[169]

Michael Shermer, writing in Scientific American, said: "The mistaken belief that a handful of unexplained anomalies can undermine a well-established theory lies at the heart of all conspiratorial thinking. All the evidence for a 9/11 conspiracy falls under the rubric of this fallacy. Such notions are easily refuted by noting that scientific theories are not built on single facts alone but on a convergence of evidence assembled from multiple lines of inquiry."[170]

Scientific American,[171] Popular Mechanics,[172] and The Skeptic's Dictionary[173] have published articles that rebut various 9/11 conspiracy theories. Proponents of these conspiracy theories have attacked the contribution to the Popular Mechanics article by senior researcher Ben Chertoff, who they say is a cousin of Michael Chertoff — former head of Homeland Security.[174] However, U.S. News says no actual connection has been revealed and Ben Chertoff has denied the allegation.[175] Popular Mechanics has published a book entitled Debunking 9/11 Myths that expands upon the research first presented in the article.[176] In the foreword for the book Senator John McCain wrote that blaming the U.S. government for the events "mars the memories of all those lost on that day" and "exploits the public's anger and sadness. It shakes Americans' faith in their government at a time when that faith is already near an all-time low. It trafficks in ugly, unfounded accusations of extraordinary evil against fellow Americans."[177] Der Spiegel dismissed 9/11 conspiracy theories as a "panoply of the absurd", stating "as diverse as these theories and their adherents may be, they share a basic thought pattern: great tragedies must have great reasons."[178] David Ray Griffin has published a book entitled Debunking 9/11 Debunking: An Answer to Popular Mechanics and Other Defenders of the Official Conspiracy Theory,[179][citation needed] and Jim Hoffman has written an article called 'popular mechanics assault on 9/11 truth" where he attacks the methods Popular Mechanics uses in forming their arguments.[180][citation needed]

Journalist Matt Taibbi, in his book The Great Derangement, discusses 9/11 conspiracy theories as symptomatic of what he calls the "derangement" of American society; a disconnection from reality due to widespread "disgust with our political system".[132] Drawing a parallel with the Charismatic movement, he argues that both "chose to battle bugbears that were completely idiotic, fanciful, and imaginary," instead of taking control of their own lives.[132] While critical, Taibbi explains that 9/11 conspiracy theories are different from "Clinton-era black-helicopter paranoia", and constitute more than "a small, scattered group of nutcases [...] they really were, just as they claim to be, almost everyone you meet."[132]

Historian Kenneth J. Dillon argues that 9/11 conspiracy theories represent an overly easy target for skeptics and that their criticisms obfuscate the underlying issue of what actually happened if there wasn't a conspiracy. He suggests that the answer is criminal negligence on the part of the president and vice president, who were repeatedly warned, followed by a cover-up conspiracy after 9/11.[181] This was expanded upon by columnist Matt Mankelow writing for the Socialist Workers Online. He concludes that 9/11 truthers while "desperately trying to legitimately question a version of events" end up playing into the hands of the neoconservatives they are trying to take down by creating a diversion. Mankelow noted that this has irritated many people who are politically left wing. [182]

British historian Antony Beevor wrote in January 2009 that "studies of internet sites reveal an unholy alliance between left-wing 9/11 conspiracy theorists, right-wing Holocaust deniers and Islamic fundamentalists". He claimed that 9/11 and other conspiracy theories are a result of a "Wikipedia age" phenomenon that author Damian Thompson dubbed "counterknowledge". It allegedly involves people "seizing upon one or two minor discrepancies in a government report, then joining up all the wrong dots to create a monstrous fable". He believes "counterknowledge" is potentially greater threat to liberal democracy than Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. [183]

David Aaronovitch, a columnist for The Times, in his book entitled The Role of the Conspiracy Theory in Shaping Modern History that was published in May 2009, claimed that the theories strain credulity.[72]

In the political arena

Former Canadian Liberal Party leader Stéphane Dion forced a candidate from Winnipeg, Lesley Hughes, to terminate her campaign after earlier writings from Hughes surfaced in which Hughes wrote that U.S., German, Russian and Israeli intelligence officials knew about the 9/11 attacks in advance.[184][185] Earlier, Peter Kent, Deputy Editor of Global Television News and Conservative Party candidate in the 2008 Canadian election, had called for Hughes's resignation saying that the 9/11 truth movement is "one of Canada’s most notorious hatemongering fringe movements" composed of "conspiracy theorists who are notorious for holding anti-Semitic views."[186] On June 16, 2009, Hughes sued Kent, the Canadian Jewish Congress, the B'Nai Brith of Canada and four senior members of the two organizations alleging the anti-Semitic allegations they were untrue and defamatory and ruined her career.[187] Later another Conservative Party candidate called for the leader of the New Democratic Party to fire a candidate for her pro 9/11 truth views.[188]

In 2008 calls for the resignation of Richard Falk, the special rapporteur on human rights in the Palestinian territories for the United Nations, were partially based on his support investigating the validity of 9/11 conspiracy theories.[189]

In February 2009, Aymeric Chauprade, a professor of geopolitics at CID military college in Paris, was fired by French Defence Minister Herve Morin for writing a book entitled ’’Chronicle of the Clash of Civilizations’’ that espoused 9/11 conspiracy theories.[190]

In September 2009 Van Jones, an adviser to US President Barack Obama, resigned after his signature on a 2004 petition calling for an investigation into whether government officials deliberately allowed the 9/11 attacks to occur and other controversial statements came to light drawing criticism. Van Jones said he was a victim of a smear campaign, and does not currently and has never agreed with that theory.[191]

See also

Notes

1.        ^ "Hypotheses: Principal Alternative Theories of the Attack". http://stj911.org/hypotheses/alternative.html. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

2.        ^ "Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Collapse?". www.physics911.net. http://www.physics911.net/stevenjones. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

3.        ^ "Retrieved 27 February 2008". Ae911truth.org. http://www.ae911truth.org/info/24. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

4.        ^ a b c "Did a Plane Hit the Pentagon?". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2009-04-19. http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20050628163417atlahtnevel0.1261103.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

5.        ^ "9-11 and the Impossible: The Pentagon". www.physics911.net. http://www.physics911.net/omholt. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

6.        ^ "The Military Drills on 9-11: "Bizarre Coincidence" or Something Else?". http://www.physics911.net/pdf/jacobs.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

7.        ^ "The Five-Sided Fantasy Island: An analysis of the Pentagon explosion on 9-11". http://911-strike.com/pentagon.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 

8.        ^ "NIST NCSTAR 1: Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster". NIST. September 2005. pp. 146. http://wtc.nist.gov/NCSTAR1/. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 

9.        ^ "Final Report on the Collapse of World Trade Center Building 7" (PDF). NIST. August 2008. pp. 22-4. http://wtc.nist.gov/media/NIST_NCSTAR_1A_for_public_comment.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 

10.     ^ Bazant, Zdenek P. and Mathieu Verdure. "Mechanics of Progressive Collapse: Learning from World Trade Center and Building Demolitions" in Journal of Engineering Mechanics ASCE, Volume 133, Issue 3, pp. 308-319 (March 2007). Bazant and Verdure write, "As generally accepted by the community of specialists in structural mechanics and structural engineering (though not by a few outsiders claiming a conspiracy with planted explosives), the failure scenario was as follows...." (continues with a four-part scenario of progressive structural failure).

11.     ^ Feuer, Alan (June 5, 2006). "500 Conspiracy Buffs Meet to Seek the Truth of 9/11". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/05/us/05conspiracy.html. Retrieved May 5, 2009. 

12.     ^ Griffin, David Ray (2007). Debunking 9/11 Debunking: An Answer to Popular Mechanics and Other Defenders of the Official Conspiracy Theory. Olive Branch Press. ISBN 156656686X. 

13.     ^ The following news media state that the movement is being known as or being called "9/11 Truth movement":

o    Hayes, Christopher (10 December 2006). "The 9/11 Truth Movement's Dangers". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/12/08/opinion/main2242387.shtml. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 

o    Barber, Peter (June 7, 2008). "The truth is out there". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/8d66e778-3128-11dd-ab22-000077b07658.html. Retrieved 23 May 2009. "An army of sceptics, collectively described as the 9/11 Truth movement" 

o    Powell, Michael (8 September 2006). "The Disbelievers". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/07/AR2006090701669_pf.html. Retrieved May 30, 2009. "The loose agglomeration known as the ‘9/11 Truth Movement’" 

o    Barry, Ellen (10 September 2006). "9/11 Conspiracy Theorists Gather in N.Y.". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2006/sep/10/nation/na-conspiracy10. Retrieved 30 May 2009. "a group known as the 9/11 Truth Movement" 

o    Hunt, H.E. (19 November 2008). "The 30 greatest conspiracy theories — part 1". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/3483477/The-30-greatest-conspiracy-theories-part-1.html. Retrieved 30 May 2009. "A large group of people — collectively called the 9/11 Truth Movement" 

o    Kay, Jonathan (25 April 2009). "Richard Gage: 9/11 truther extraordinaire". National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/story.html?id=1532386. Retrieved 30 May 2009. "The ‘9/11 Truth Movement,’ as it is now commonly called" 

14.     ^ a b c d e f g h Knight, Peter (2008). "Outrageous Conspiracy Theories: Popular and Official Responses to 9/11 in Germany and the United States". New German Critique 35 (1). http://ngc.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/35/1_103/165.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 

15.     ^ Knight, Peter (2008). "Outrageous Conspiracy Theories: Popular and Official Responses to 9/11 in Germany and the United States". New German Critique 35 (1):  168–169. http://ngc.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/35/1_103/165.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2009. "Although immensely popular in Europe (and soon translated into Arabic), these early conspiracy accounts were treated by the U.S. media with either bafflement or amusement and were dismissed by the U.S. government as the product of anti-Americanism.". 

16.     ^ Johnson, Ian (September 29, 2003). "Conspiracy Theories about Sept. 11 Get Hearing in Germany". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB106479068042179400,00.html. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 

17.     ^ Bush, George Walker (2001-11-10). "Remarks by the President To United Nations General Assembly". White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/11/20011110-3.html. 

18.     ^ "National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions". NIST. http://wtc.nist.gov/pubs/factsheets/faqs_8_2006.htm. 

19.     ^ "The Top September 11 Conspiracy Theories". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2006-09-16. http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2006/September/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.html. 

20.     ^ "Strategy for Winning the War on Terror". White House. September 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nsct/2006/sectionV.html. 

21.     ^ BBC

22.     ^ USA Today

23.     ^ Scotsman.com

24.     ^ Breaking News | Latest News | Current News - FOXNews.com

25.     ^ San Francisco Bay Area

26.     ^ Boston.com

27.     ^ Wolf, Jim (2006-09-02). "U.S rebuts 9/11 homegrown conspiracy theories". Reuters. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/02/AR2006090200527.html. 

28.     ^ a b Grossman, Lev (2006-09-03). "Why The 9/11 Conspiracies Won't Go Away". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1531304-1,00.html. 

29.     ^ "Zogby International". Zogby.com. http://www.zogby.com/news/readnews.cfm?ID=1354. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

30.     ^ "X-911T.spo" (PDF). http://www.911truth.org/images/ZogbyPoll2007.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

31.     ^ "The 30 greatest conspiracy theories The Telegraph November 19, 2008". Telegraph.co.uk. 2008-11-19. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/3483477/The-30-greatest-conspiracy-theories-part-1.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

32.     ^ "Audit Bureau of Circulations Ltd". Nmauk.co.uk. 2009-02-23. http://www.nmauk.co.uk/nma/do/live/factsAndFigures. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

33.     ^ "Profiles of 9/11 - About 9/11". Biography.com. 2001-09-11. http://www.biography.com/profiles-of-9-11/about911.jsp. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

34.     ^ "World Trade Center Building Performance Study". http://www.fema.gov/rebuild/mat/wtcstudy.shtm. 

35.     ^ Meigs, James (2006-10-13). "The Conspiracy Industry". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/4199607.html. 

36.     ^ "Behind Purdue’s computing simulation on the 2001 World Trade Center attack ZDNET June 20, 2007". Blogs.zdnet.com. http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=5442. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

37.     ^ Herman, Steve (2007-06-20). "Purdue study supports WTC collapse findings". Usatoday.com. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2007-06-20-fireproofing-wtc-collapse_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

38.     ^ "Osama claims responsibility for 9/11". Times of India. 2006-05-24. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1550477.cms. 

39.     ^ "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC (Canada). http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2004/10/29/binladen_message041029.html. 

40.     ^ "America's Day of Terror". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/americas/2001/day_of_terror/. 

41.     ^ "Depuis le 11-Septembre, la menace terroriste est devenue permanente". Le Monde. http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3222,36-687756@51-641954,0.html. 

42.     ^ "Sept. 11: One Year Later". Deutsche Welle. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,623034,00.html. 

43.     ^ "Bin Laden tape shown days before 9/11 anniversary". ABC. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2006/s1736235.htm. 

44.     ^ "Korean's Memories of 9/11 Still Fresh Five Years On". The Chosun Ilbo. http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200609/200609110002.html. 

45.     ^ June 05, 2009 (2009-06-05). "Excerpts from President Obama's speech Los Angeles Times June 5, 2009". Latimes.com. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-obama-excerpts5-2009jun05,0,7535721.story. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

46.     ^ Schmitt, Richard (2004-06-23). "The 9/11 Commission Report; Panel Calls for Single Intelligence Chief". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2004/jul/23/nation/na-intel23. 

47.     ^ CBC News, August 21, 2006, http://www.cbc.ca/sunday/911hamilton.html

48.     ^ Eggen, Dan. "9/11 Panel Suspected Deception by Pentagon", Washington Post, 2 August 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.

49.     ^ Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, Thomas Kean and Lee Hamilton

50.     ^ a b "CBC News: Sunday - 9/11: Truth, Lies and Conspiracy". Cbc.ca. 2006-08-21. http://www.cbc.ca/sunday/911hamilton.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

51.     ^ "Justice after Bush: Prosecuting an outlaw administration—By Scott Horton (Harper's Magazine)". Harpers.org. 2001-09-11. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2008/12/0082303. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

52.     ^ a b c Sales, Nancy Jo. Click Here For Conspiracy, Vanity Fair July 9, 2006

53.     ^ What Is Your "hop" Level? - Ten Scenarios Of What May Have Happened On September 11th, 2001, Summeroftruth.org

54.     ^ a b "The evolution of a conspiracy theory". bbc.co.uk. 4 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7488159.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 

55.     ^ "Michael Meacher: This war on terrorism is bogus Politics | The Guardian". The Guardianhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2003/sep/06/september11.iraq. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

56.     ^ "Meacher sparks fury over claims on September 11 and Iraq war Politics | The Guardian". The Guardianhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2003/sep/06/uk.iraq. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

57.     ^ David Ray Griffin. "The 9/11 Commission Report: A 571-page Lie". http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20050523112738404. 

58.     ^ Unusual Option Market Activity and the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 Allen M. Poteshman 2006 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign pdf.

59.     ^ a b c Mol, Phil. "eSkeptic » Monday, September 11th, 2006". Skeptic. http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/06-09-11. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

60.     ^ a b c Editors, The. "Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/defense/1227842.html?page=3. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

61.     ^ a b David Aaronovitch (2009-04-29). "9/11 conspiracy theories: The truth is out there...just not on the internet". The Times. http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/the_way_we_live/article6187493.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

62.     ^ Dean, Suzanne (2006-04-10). "Physicist says heat substance felled WTC". Deseret News. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,635198488,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 

63.     ^ Dr. Steven E. Jones (2006, September). "Why Indeed Did the World Trade Center Buildings Completely Collapse" (PDF). Journal of 9/11 Studies, Vol. 3. http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200609/WhyIndeedDidtheWorldTradeCenterBuildingsCompletelyCollapse.pdf. 

64.     ^ Harrit, Niels H. "Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe". http://www.bentham.org/open/tocpj/openaccess2.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 

65.     ^ "Questions and Answers about the NIST WTC 7 Investigation". NIST. 2008-08-21. http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/factsheet/wtc_qa_082108.html. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 

66.     ^ Videos Released Of Plane Crashing Into Pentagon May 17, 2006

67.     ^ a b c d e Editors, The. "Popular Mechanics". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/1227842.html?do=print. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

68.     ^ "US invented air attack on Pentagon, claims French book | World news". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/01/september11.france. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

69.     ^ "The Top September 11 Conspiracy Theories". America.gov. http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/May/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

70.     ^ a b c "Programmes | Conspiracy Files | Q&A: What really happened". BBC News. 2007-02-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/conspiracy_files/6341851.stm#8. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

71.     ^ a b The Crash of Flight 93: Evidence Indicates Flight 93 Was Shot Down 2006-12-20

72.     ^ a b c 9/11 conspiracy theories: The truth is out there...just not on the internet by David Aaronovitch for The Times April 29, 2009

73.     ^ Skeptic: The Skeptics Society & Skeptic magazine

74.     ^ "'Black box' from Pennsylvania crash found". CNN. September 13, 2001. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/US/09/13/penn.attack/. Retrieved July 19, 2009. 

75.     ^ O'Toole, James; Tom Gibb and Cindi Lash (2001-09-14). "Flight data recorder may hold clues to suicide flight". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/headlines/20010914scene0914p2.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 

76.     ^ "Flight 93". Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report. Popular Mechanics. March 2005. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/defense/1227842.html?page=7. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 

77.     ^ Carlin, John (2002-08-13). "Unanswered questions". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/unanswered-questions-the-mystery-of-flight-93-639770.html. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 

78.     ^ 60 Seconds: Ben Sliney October 4, 2006

79.     ^ "Physics911 Frequently Asked Questions section". http://www.physics911.net/faq.htm. 

80.     ^ "9/11 Conspiracy Theories: The 9/11 Truth Movement in Perspective". http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/06-09-11. 

81.     ^ 9-11 Review

82.     ^ WCPO.com's Flight 93 Story (Archived by the Wayback Machine)

83.     ^ "Picture Made on 9/11 Takes a Toll on Photographer". http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/10/us/10cnd-shanksville.html. 

84.     ^ "The Attack on the World Trade Center Towers". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2009-04-24. http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090428135102atlahtnevel0.7969629.html#ixzz0KsG5YGTm&C. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

85.     ^ "AMERICAS | The investigation and the evidence". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1581063.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

86.     ^ Steve Herrmann (2006-10-27). "9/11 Conspiracy Theory, by Steve Hermann, BBC Editor". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/theeditors/2006/10/911_conspiracy_theory_1.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

87.     ^ After the Attacks: Missed Cues; Saudi May Have Been Suspected in Error, Officials Say September 16, 2001

88.     ^ Panoply of the Absurd September 08, 2003

89.     ^ A. K. Dewdney. Project Achilles: Low Altitude Cellphone Experiments. http://physics911.net/pdf/Achilles.pdf. 

90.     ^ Will They Allow Cell Phones on Planes? Elliot.org September 19, 2001

91.     ^ a b Betsy Harter (November 1, 2001). "Final Contact". Telephony Online. http://telephonyonline.com/wireless/ar/wireless_final_contact/. 

92.     ^ a b Romero, Simon. "After the Attacks: Communications; New Perspective on the Issue Of Cell Phone Use in Planes". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/14/us/after-attacks-communications-new-perspective-issue-cell-phone-use-planes.html. Retrieved July 8, 2009. "According to industry experts, it is possible to use cell phones with varying success during the ascent and descent of commercial airline flights, although the difficulty of maintaining a signal appears to increase as planes gain altitude." 

93.     ^ "Phone calls". http://www.debunk911myths.org/topics/Phone_calls. 

94.     ^ "Phone Call Oddities". http://911research.wtc7.net/planes/analysis/callanomalies.html#various. 

95.     ^ Internet Archive "which appeared in the September 12th internet edition of the Jerusalem Post. It stated, "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attacks."

96.     ^ A survey of the 1,700 victims whose religion was listed found approximately 10% were Jewish indicating around 270 in total. A survey based on the last names of victims found that around 400 (15½%) were possibly Jewish. A survey of 390 Cantor Fitzgerald employees who had public memorials (out of the 658 who died) found 49 were Jewish (12½%). According to the 2002 American Jewish Year Book, New York State's population was 9% Jewish. Sixty-four percent of the WTC victims lived in New York State.

97.     ^ The Mitzvah To Remember (09/05/2002) Gary Rosenblatt, August 3, 2007

98.     ^ The Resuscitation of Anti-Semitism: An American Perspective: An Interview with Abraham Foxman 1 October 2003

99.     ^ The 4,000 Jews Rumor: Rumor surrounding Sept. 11th proved untrue January 2005

100.  ^ "The 4,000 Jews Rumor". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2007-11-16. http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2007/November/20050114145729atlahtnevel0.1679041.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

101.  ^ The 4,000 Jews Rumor

102.  ^ Cashman, Greer Fay (2002-09-12). "Five Israeli victims remembered in capital". The Jerusalem Post (The Jerusalem Post): p. 3. http://web.archive.org/web/20021104190710/http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/A/JPArticle/ShowFull&cid=1031666147075. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 

103.  ^ NYTimes -AFTER THE ATTACKS: THE INVESTIGATION; Authorities Have Learned the Identities Of 18 Hijackers, Attorney General Says

104.  ^ ""9/11 Cover-up Two-Page Summary" WantToKnow.info". http://www.wanttoknow.info/9-11cover-up. 

105.  ^ ""The Coverup", 911review.com". http://911review.com/coverup/index.html. 

106.  ^ ""9/11 Commission: The official coverup guide", 911truth.org". http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20040525104145424. 

107.  ^ "Bush asks Daschle to limit Sept. 11 probes" CNN.com

108.  ^ "Bush Opposes 9/11 Query Panel" CBS News

109.  ^ "Whistleblower Complains of FBI Obstruction" FOX News

110.  ^ "9-11 Commission Funding Woes" Time.com

111.  ^ "Bush: Documents sought by 9/11 commission 'very sensitive'" CNN.com

112.  ^ "9/11 commission finishes Bush, Cheney session" MSNBC

113.  ^ "Behind-the-Scenes: Ground Zero. A Collection of Personal Accounts - [summeroftruth.org]". [summeroftruth.org]http://summeroftruth.org/groundzero.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

114.  ^ "9/11: Missing Black Boxes in World Trade Center Attacks Found by Firefighters, Analyzed by NTSB, Concealed by FBI". A CounterPunch Special Report — Did the Bush Administration Lie to Congress and the 9/11 Commission?. CounterPunch. 2005-12-19. http://counterpunch.org/lindorff12202005.html. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 

115.  ^ Jones, Steven E. (2006). "FAQ: Questions and Answers" (pdf). Journal Of 9/11 Studies. http://worldtradecentertruth.com/JonesAnswersQuestionsWorldTradeCenter.pdf.  page 181.

116.  ^ Swanson, Gail; edited by Dennis Fisin (2003). Ground Zero, A collection of personal accounts. TRAC Team. 

117.  ^ "Voice recorders could provide crucial 9/11 clues". USAToday. http://www.usatoday.com/news/sept11/2002/02/23/black-boxes.htm. 

118.  ^ Families hear tape from hijacked Flight 93 April 18, 2002

119.  ^ "Bin Laden says he wasn't behind attacks CNN September 17, 2001". Archives.cnn.com. 2001-09-17. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/16/inv.binladen.denial/index.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

120.  ^ "Timeline: the al-Qaida tapes The Guardian Unlimited". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/alqaida/page/0,12643,839823,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

121.  ^ a b "Bin Laden urges Europe to quit Afghanistan Reuters UK November 29, 2007". Uk.reuters.com. 2007-11-29. http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKL2912911920071129?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

122.  ^ U.S. urged to detail origin of tape Guardian December 15, 2001

123.  ^ "New Bin Laden "Confession" Tape: Fake Like The Rest? PrisonPlanet.com November 29, 2007". Infowars.net. http://infowars.net/articles/november2007/291107Laden.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

124.  ^ "Osama-Berlusconi? «Trappola giornalistica»". Corriere della sera. November 30, 2007. http://www.corriere.it/politica/07_novembre_30/osama_berlusconi_cossiga_27f4ccee-9f55-11dc-8807-0003ba99c53b.shtml. Retrieved June 15, 2009. "tutti gli ambienti democratici d'America e d'Europa, con in prima linea quelli del centrosinistra italiano, sanno ormai bene che il disastroso attentato è stato pianificato e realizzato dalla Cia americana e dal Mossad" 

125.  ^ "Fareed Zakaria GPS Mexican Crisis; India Terror Attacks CNN Transscript December 7, 2008". Transcripts.cnn.com. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0812/07/fzgps.01.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

126.  ^ "911 Taboo, a movie by Genghis6199 of 911taboo.com". http://www.911taboo.net/gtv/taboomenu.html. 

127.  ^ a b Michael Powell (2006-09-08). "WP: 9/11 conspiracy theories". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14723997/print/1/displaymode/1098/. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

128.  ^ a b "Phoenix News — The Yoda of 9/11 - page 5". Phoenixnewtimes.com. http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/2007-08-09/news/the-yoda-of-9-11/5. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

129.  ^ "The Reptilian Elite — Conspiracy Theories". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1860871_1860876_1861029,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

130.  ^ Philippe Naughton (2008-06-27). "Reptilians beware - David Icke is back!". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article4226273.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 

131.  ^ Andrew J. Bacevich (44). American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U.S. Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

132.  ^ a b c d e f Taibbi, Matt (2008). The Great Derangement. New York: Spiegel & Grau. pp. 9–12, 148–166. ISBN 9780385520348. 

133.  ^ Bedi, Rahul (March 15, 2001). "India joins anti-Taliban coalition". Jane's Intelligence Weekly. 

134.  ^ "US 'planned attack on Taleban'". BBC News. 2001-09-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1550366.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 

135.  ^ "U.S. planned for attack on al-Qaida — Security — MSNBC.com". MSNBC. 2002-05-16. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4587368/. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

136.  ^ Connolly, Kate (2003-11-20). "Telegraph, 20 Nov 2003". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/1447232/German-Sept-11-theory-stokes-anti-US-feeling.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

137.  ^ 11.September - en innsidejobb?, Norwegian edition of Le Monde diplomatique, July 2006. See also English translation: Kim Bredesen, Was 9/11 an inside job?

138.  ^ * (French) Pour le Monde diplomatique norvégien, le 11 septembre est un complot intérieur US, Voltaire Network * (Spanish) El 11 de septiembre fue un complot interno estadounidense, estima la prensa noruega

139.  ^ *(English) Distractions from awful reality - US: the conspiracy that wasn’t, by Alexander Cockburn in Le Monde diplomatique, December 2006 *(French)Scepticisme ou occultisme? Le complot du 11-Septembre n’aura pas lieu, by Alexander Cockburn in Le Monde diplomatique, December 2006 *(Persian) Iranian translation *(Portuguese) PODERES IMAGINÁRIOS - A "conspiração" das Torres Gêmeas

140.  ^ Debunking the Myths of 9/11, by Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, CounterPunch, November 28, 2006

141.  ^ CBC News: the fifth estate: Conspiracy Theories at www.cbc.ca

142.  ^ Grossman, Lev. (2006) Time.com – Why The 9/11 Conspiracies Won't Go Away

143.  ^ The CIA couldn't have organised this... 08/09/2006

144.  ^ Blair, Tim (2007-05-05). "The Daily Telegraph "Virgin's 9/11 Farce"". News.com.au. http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/opinion/story/0,22049,21671628-5001031,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

145.  ^ "Truthers are overlooking key point about 9/11 Human nature Doug MacEachern for the Arizona Republic May 11, 2008". Azcentral.com. 2008-05-11. http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/viewpoints/articles/0511vip-maceachern0511.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

146.  ^ Calgary, The (2008-07-10). "Washington can't live up to standards of 9/11 'truthers Timothy Giannuzzi for the Calgary Herald July 10, 2008". Canada.com. http://www.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/theeditorialpage/story.html?id=0bc82ffe-1e2e-4991-93ea-0f384b864bad&p=2. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

147.  ^ "The Truth Is Out There — Part I Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008". Ft.com. 2008-06-07. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/a3e2879e-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fa3e2879e-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.ft.com%2Fsearch%3FqueryText%3D9%252F11%2Btruth%26x%3D0%26y%3D0%26aje%3Dtrue%26dse%3D%26dsz%3D. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

148.  ^ "The Truth Is Out There — Part II Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008". Ft.com. 2008-06-07. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/e46f11d8-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fe46f11d8-342c-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html&_i_referer=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.ft.com%2Fsearch%3FqueryText%3D9%252F11%2Btruth%26x%3D0%26y%3D0%26aje%3Dtrue%26dse%3D%26dsz%3D. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

149.  ^ "The Truth Is Out There — Part III Financial Times Magazine June 7, 2008". Ft.com. 2008-06-07. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8a580372-342b-11dd-869b-0000779fd2ac.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

150.  ^ Logged in as click here to log out. "So, you believe in conspiracy theories, do you? You probably also think you're the Emperor of Pluto Charles Brooker for The Guardian Unlimited 14 July, 2008". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/jul/14/september11.usa. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

151.  ^ Logged in as click here to log out. "Who knows what happened on 9/11? Dan Hind for the Guardian Unlimited 17 July, 2008". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/jul/17/september11. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

152.  ^ "DPA News Agency Filmmaker Urges International Tribunal to Probe 9/11 September 9, 2008". Dw-world.de. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3626100,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

153.  ^ Tarpley, Webster G.. "Landmark Russian TV Debate on 9/11 Center for Research on Globalization September 9, 2008". Globalresearch.ca. http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=10130. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

154.  ^ "Russian TV Teaches "9/11 Truth" The Other Russia September 16, 2008". Theotherrussia.org. http://www.theotherrussia.org/2008/09/16/russian-tv-teaches-%E2%80%9C911-truth%E2%80%9D/. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

155.  ^ "19 Muslims involved in 9/11 never proved guilty by anybody Nasir Mahmood for the Pakistan Observer September 15, 2008". Pakobserver.net. http://pakobserver.net/200809/15/news/topstories07.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

156.  ^ "9/11 conspiracy theories exposed ITN November 10, 2008". Itn.co.uk. http://itn.co.uk/news/eb25eb27b4c1315a34017442fb7831a7.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

157.  ^ World Agenda: To tell you the truth, these conspiracists scare me The Times August 4, 2009

158.  ^ Why the Birthers Matter by Ben Cohen for The Huffington Post July 23, 2009

159.  ^ Birthers Versus Truthers Atlantic Montly August 3, 2009

160.  ^ Conspiracy theorists seek order in a terrifying world Irish Times August 8, 2009

161.  ^ 9/11 Science and Conspiracy Theory Website

162.  ^ National Geographic Channel 9/11 Science and Conspiracy

163.  ^ "TV show depicts 9/11 as Bush plot The Washington Times June 9, 2005". Washingtontimes.com. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/jun/08/20050608-095942-4588r/. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

164.  ^ South Park Studios

165.  ^ The Political Suspicions of 9/11 New York Times February 1, 2009

166.  ^ "'Rescue Me' Returns; Leary Fans The Flames Hartford Courant March 22, 2009". Courant.com. http://www.courant.com/entertainment/tv/hc-rescue_me.artmar22,0,6562062.story. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

167.  ^ Broadley, Erin. "Last Night: Denis Leary Reveals New 'Rescue Me' Plot and Reminds us 'Why We Suck' @ Book Soup LA Weekly December 2, 2008". Blogs.laweekly.com. http://blogs.laweekly.com/ladaily/hollywood/last-night-denis-leary-reveals/. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

168.  ^ Barkun, 2003

169.  ^ Walch, Tad (2006). "Controversy dogs Y.'s Jones". Utah news. Deseret News Publishing Company. http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,645200098,00.html. Retrieved 2006-09-09. 

170.  ^ Shermer, Michael (2005). "Fahrenheit 2777". Skeptic. Scientific American, Inc.. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=000DA0E2-1E15-128A-9E1583414B7F0000&colID=13. Retrieved 2006-10-13. 

171.  ^ Shermer, Michael (June 2005). "Fahrenheit 2777, 9/11 has generated the mother of all conspiracy theories". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000DA0E2-1E15-128A-9E1583414B7F0000. 

172.  ^ "Debunking The 9/11 Myths — Mar. 2005 Cover Story". Popular Mechanics. March 2005. http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/defense/1227842.html?page=1&c=y. 

173.  ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2006-03-30). "Mass Media Bunk - 9/11 conspiracies: the war on critical thinking". The Skeptic's Dictionary. http://skepdic.com/refuge/bunk27.html. 

174.  ^ Bollyn, Christopher (2005-03-04). "9/11 and Chertoff". Associated Free Press. http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?noframes;read=66176. 

175.  ^ Sullivan, Will (2006-09-03). "Viewing 9/11 From a Grassy Knoll". Us News. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/060903/11conspiracy.htm. 

176.  ^ "Debunking The 9/11 Myths blog". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/blog/911mythsblog. 

177.  ^ Dunbar, David. "John McCain forward to Debunking 9/11 myths August 4, 2006". Popularmechanics.com. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military_law/3491861.html?page=4. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

178.  ^ Cziesche, Dominik, Jürgen Dahlkamp, Ulrich Fichtner, Ulrich Jaeger, Gunther Latsch, Gisela Leske, and Max F. Ruppert (2003-09-08). "Panoply of the Absurd". Der Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,265160,00.html. 

179.  ^ Griffin, David Ray (2007). Debunking 9/11 Debunking: An Answer to Popular Mechanics and Other Defenders of the Official Conspiracy Theory. Olive Branch Press. ISBN 978-1566566865. 

180.  ^ "911 research". http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/gopm/index.html. 

181.  ^ "Anomalous Mistake-driven Opportunity Creation". http://www.scientiapress.com/findings/amoc.htm. 

182.  ^ "David Aaronovitch: Cover-ups, collusion and conspiracies Socialist Workers Online June 23, 2009". Socialistworker.co.uk. 2009-06-27. http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=18266. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

183.  ^ Antony Beevor on films that rewrite history The Times January 18, 2009

184.  ^ "Dion drops candidate over 9/11 remarks Toronto Star September 26, 2008". Thestar.com. 2008-09-26. http://www.thestar.com/FederalElection/article/506806. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

185.  ^ Toxic theory sank Hughes Winnipeg Free Press October 4, 2008[dead link]

186.  ^ Conservative Party Of Canada (2008-09-26). "Dion must fire his anti-israel candidate Conservative Party Press Release September 26, 2008". Conservative.ca. http://www.conservative.ca/EN/1091/106439. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

187.  ^ Martin, Nick (2009-06-23). "Hughes sues MP, B'Nai Brith Says anti-Semite accusations have ruined career Winnipeg Free Press June 23, 2009". Winnipegfreepress.com. http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/hughes-sues-mp-bnai-brith-says-anti-semite-accusations-have-ruined-career-48864447.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

188.  ^ Conservative Party Of Canada. "Ottawa NDP continue to flirt with fringe Conservative Party Press release September 30, 2008". Conservative.ca. http://www.conservative.ca/EN/1091/106644. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

189.  ^ Abrams, Joseph (2008-07-15). "Critics Demand Resignation of U.N. Official Who Wants Probe of 9/11 'Inside Job' Theories Fox News June 19, 2008". Foxnews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,369122,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

190.  ^ "French lecturer sacked over 9/11 conspiracy claims AFP/Expatica February 6, 2009". Expatica.com. http://www.expatica.com/fr/news/local_news/French-lecturer-sacked-over-9_11-conspiracy-claims_49327.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 

191.  ^ "Obama did not order Van Jones' resignation, adviser says". CNN. 2009-09-06. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/09/06/obama.adviser.resigns/. Retrieved 2009-09-06.